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The Principles are concepts used to organize or arrange the structural elements of design. The way in which these principles are applied affects the expressive content, or the message of the work. How one applies these principles determines how successful a design maybe

The principles are:



As a basic principle of art (specifically of design), the definition of balance refers to the ways in which the elements (lines, shapes, colors, textures, etc.) of a piece are arranged. Balance is a psychological sense of equilibrium.

As a design principle, balance places the parts of a visual in an aesthetically pleasing arrangement. It
will help you create an aesthetically pleasing whole and help you better control flow in your designs.

Balance in a three-dimensional object is easy to understand; if balance isn’t achieved, the object tips over. To understand balance in a two-dimensional composition, we must use our imaginations to carry this three-dimensional analogy forward to the flat surface.

  • Visual Weight in Design Elements

The major difference in design balance and physical balance is that your visual elements don’t have physical weight. They do however, have visual weight.

Some things that affect visual weight:

Size – As you would expect larger elements carry more weight

Color – It’s not fully understood why, but some colors are
perceived as weighing more than others. Red seems to be
heaviest while yellow seems to be lightest.

Density – Packing more elements into a given space, gives more
weight to that space

Value – A darker object will have more weight than a lighter

Whitespace – Positive space weighs more than negative space or


Symmetrical balance is easiest to see in perfectly centered compositions or those with mirror images. In a design with only two elements, they would be almost identical or have nearly the same visual mass.

When a design can be centered or evenly divided both vertically and horizontally it has the most
complete symmetry possible. Symmetrical balance generally lends itself to more formal, orderly layouts.
They often convey a sense of tranquility or familiarity or elegance or serious contemplation.


The asymmetrical design is typically off-center or created with an odd or mismatched number of disparate elements. However, you can still have an interesting design without perfect

With asymmetrical balance, you are evenly distributing the elements within the format which may mean balancing a large photo with several small graphics. Or, you can create tension by intentionally avoiding balance.

Uneven elements present us with more possibilities for arranging the page and creating interesting designs than perfectly symmetrical objects. Asymmetrical layouts are generally more dynamic and by intentionally ignoring balance the designer can create tension, express movement, or convey
a mood such as anger, excitement, joy, or casual amusement.


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